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  1. Lincang-Lushi-Old-Town-in-Tea-Horse-Caravan05

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Lushi Old Town is situated in the northeast of Fengqing County, about 84 km from the county seat. With a population of more than 2,300, Lushi is the co-inhabited by nationalities such as Chinese Han, Yi, Miao and Bai etc, among whom Yi is the “aboriginals”. Lushi Old Town is known for its long history and profound culture. It has been listed into the book “Chinese Famous Old Towns” as one of the “100 Chinese Old Towns”. In the ethnic language of the Yi People, “Ah Lu” means “a small town”. In 1598, an “Ah Lu Si” (governmental office) was established. When it came to the Republic of China (1911-1949), “Ah Lu Si” had been renamed into “Lu Shi” which remains the same till today. There is an ancient passage in Lushi Old Town that came into being in the early 14th century. The passage used to serve as the linkage between the inland of China and the frontier areas in Southwest Yunnan. To the north, it can connect Kunming Area while to the south it is a passage for access into Myanmar and the Southeast Asian Countries via Shunning and Zhenkang. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Lushi was an important part of the South Silk Road and had developed into a dak on the Ancient Tea-Horses Trail (Road) in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.

However, in today's Tea-Horse Road study, the existence of two bad tendencies:

Do not attach importance to a comprehensive, empirical investigations and studies, eyes stare at a relatively narrow scope, and the one-sided attention to the lack of materials system. For example, previous studies and information with one-sidedness, like Tea-Horse Road and Pu'er is, the easy-in fact, history has been so broad Yunnan tea-producing area, a huge number of tea annually from the producing areas to Sinotrans, and a tool to transport natural mainly Caravan, the only way for the annual Caravan, Tea-Horse Road is not what is? Logically, one can say that the source of Tea-Horse Road in the producing areas and finish in the consumer area. In fact, many in the past had very famous and brilliant trail by our researchers intentionally or unintentionally overlooked. I have visited all the sites in the Tea-Horse Road, I think the most should not be ignored is the first Yunnan tea Lincang area of the town Lu Feng Qing, she can be such a well-deserved title: western Yunnan Cha Ma first town.
 
Lushi Ancient Town
Lu Fengqiangxian history in the north-east, the Lancang River and the Black middle-Jiang, known as "Jiajiang" said. History, leading to the Weishan Fengqing, Shimonoseki, Kunming and the Central Plains important transport hub and the inn, known as "Tea-Horse Road in the town first."
 
Lushi, formerly "Aru Division." Ming Wanli 26 (1598) - Having established Division Street courts, and set up a "Aru Division patrol." Ning Fu-Ming and Qing dynasties for the management of the Lancang River north of the Xingyuan,or "Amun." Mission District early years of the Republic formally established local management agencies and local police stations. In 18 (1929) Lu Jian history of the town.
 
Lushi place because of the history of the Ming and Qing Dynasties before the opening of Myanmar, Thailand commerce and the ancient Silk Road, a major road leading to the mainland, south of the Lancang River resistance, the north is separated black Jiang Hui, surrounded on three sides by water, natural barriers, geographical location, the history of military strategists is a hotly contested spot, and is ideal for business Distributed by. The reason for regime change and war, the mainland officials, tycoons, businessmen, artisans constant movement frontier, in the light of the history of Lu climate and environment in the strategic advantages, they then choose to settle here. Mainland people Laji bring advanced technology and social civilization, and promoting the history of Lu local construction, textile, food and handicrafts and the development of religious, cultural prosperity.
 
Lushi town history, things 800 meters long, 538 meters wide north-south, with a total area of 430,000 square meters. The Lancang River and Lu Shun Ningfu a history of the town at two halves, the history of the Mainland officials to send flow Shun Ning, or all-Zhuguan to the Mainland, can only rely on Mang Kaito, rhino from the ferry crossing. Qing Emperor Qianlong 26 (1761) Governor Liu Jing Shun Ning Zhifu soil in the construction of Tsing Lung Bridge Akiko found that Kinmen and Matsu on the Lancang River at the foot of the mountain, this is the first grand Shun Ning Qing Dynasty architecture, but also in the Lancang River has three Old Bridge still preserved the only steel bridge.
 
Tsing Lung Bridge, upon completion, traffic has been further development, and promoted Lu to the prosperity of the local economy. Lu history Town store the proliferation of firms increased. Silk fabric foreign yarn, cotton cloth, salt and other products and the local tea, walnut, fungus and other native products to the distribution center for the transaction. Mainland supplies to the people of the border areas; mainland people to rush Spring Tea Fengqing, Lu purchased from the history of tea after return home. Kunming, Dali area tea merchants will Fengqing tea trafficked to Lijiang, Diqing, and Tibet, Lu Feng Qing history as a tea to be transported to the various localities, while around the culture through the history of the western Lu deep divergence.
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There are three main lines of Tea-Horse Trade Caravan from Lincang City: 
       1. Fengqing (Shun Ning) - Lu shi - Weishan - Shimonoseki - Lijiang - Zhongdian - Tibet 
       2. Fengqing (Shun Ning) - Lu shi- Shimonoseki - Kunming - Foreign; 
       3. Dali - Shimonoseki - Weishan - Lu History - Feng Qing (Shun Ning) - Hong town - Gengma - Myanmar.
 
Therefore, in a certain sense, the history of Lu is the first tea from the town of Lincang, and the field is the beginning of Lincang the first platform; Lu History Center is a divergence of tea, and was the centre for cultural exchanges.
 
According to historical records, Emperor Kangxi 2004 (1665), North Yunnan-states (in Yongsheng County of Lijiang today) the establishment of the tea-horse market, Fengqing tea products began to flow Lijiang. In the 1920s, Dali-hi, YAN Zi Zhen next Commissioner to establish a "Cheung Yongchang" firms, began production Tuocha bear tea sales and possession, and Syria House (now Yibin), Chongqing, Hankow and Shanghai City and Myanmar established Watt semicolon. The Fengqing sun-Maocha, "Cheung Yongchang" Tuocha products essential raw materials (at that time, "Cheung Yongchang" produced by the firms Tuocha three brands: one is the licensing Tuocha, Chongjiu February 2, with spring Mingjian produced sharp, double Jiang tea 60 per cent, 40 per cent Fengqing tea; a deputy licensing Tuocha, re-August 22, 60 per cent of tea Fengqing, Mengku tea accounted for 40% have a positive mind licensing Tuocha, - August 22, also admitted Mengku tea flavour, Fengqing tea Characteristics of both pleasing in appearance made). Therefore, YAN Zi Zhen was dedicated in 1928 in Fengqing "Cheung Yongchang" traders, and bid Fengqing Green tea merchants from all Maocha. To the late 1930s, Feng Qing tea to the development of more than 20 firms, the capital different, but YAN Zi Zhen opened "Cheung Yongchang" one the most, more than half of the county's tea was YAN Zi Zhen acquisition. Therefore, more than 300 years, as the plant gradually tea, tea production rising to the various tea mainly to the mountains of goods will Fengqing as the center, from Caravan along the line of "offline" dumping around.
 
Long-off the assembly line, is from Shun Ning (today Fengqing) to Shimonoseki in this line. Caravan along this line is very difficult. Ma, although it does not narrow, the majority of five, cuts wide, but a deep valley high mountains, cliffs Cantilever Qiao Lin Ming among Yuanti birds, night Butch appear, the number of pot-head has spread anecdote feat. Road difficult, and rivers are treacherous, in the black-and across the Lancang Jiang, can only be used bamboo rafts or Muzhou through Luoma and Tuozi respectively, if the water rose encounter shock waves, the raft turned piggyback Ma Shen Zhou swamped by the situation have also occurred frequently. 26 years of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1761), Shun Ning Liu Qing led people to create Zhifu Lancang steel bridge (Tsing Lung Bridge), the Tea-Horse Road, this can become Shun Ning, Yunzhou (today Yunxian), Myanmar-ling (today Lincang ), double Jiang, and the town of Gengma Kang, and other places to Kunming, Dali and the thoroughfare.

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